What is a Solar Panel and its Types with Specifications?

In today's times, the world is moving towards solar energy because of sustainability and cost-effectiveness. Solar energy means the energy or power that is generated from the sun. Everyday earth gets a massive quantity of power at once from the sun, which is likewise represented as solar power. With unique scientific methods, we will use this solar power. Solar power may be transformed into different beneficial kinds of power. Solar power also can be used as electric power.   

What is a Solar Panel and its Types with Specifications?

Solar Panels 

Solar energy is the chief source of energy. Solar energy reaches the earth in the form of sunlight. Solar energy can be converted into electrical energy through the use of semiconductor devices like silicon known as Solar Cell or Photo Voltaic cells. A single solar cell produces a small amount of voltage. To get high voltage, a large number of such solar cells are connected in a series known as a solar panel. 
Electrical energy can be stored in power units also known as batteries by connecting them to solar panels to keep them in use during cloudy days and nights. This battery can later be used to provide electrical energy to appliances at night or on cloudy days. 

Solar cells are expensive but can be used for a long time. Solar power is an environmentally friendly source of energy. Solar energy is renewable energy that can be used again and again.

Uses of Solar Energy/Power:

Solar energy can be used in various ways. Some of them  are as follows:

Solar Calculators

Solar Heaters

Solar Watches

Use in Industrial Areas to Generate Electricity 

Used to provide electricity to tubewells

Many new cars run on it

Used for power generation at homes

Solar Panel Types:              

The variety of solar panels available are:

Monocrystalline Panels:

Monocrystalline panels are fairly efficient.  Their life span is about between 25 and 30 years, but it costs more. Solar panels with black cells are most likely to be a monocrystalline panels.  It seems black due to how light interacts with the natural silicon crystal. It can have a variety of colors for its back sheets and frames.

Monocrystalline solar panels

Polycrystalline(Multi-Crystalline) Panels: 

Polycrystalline Panels have low cost and low efficiency. Their life span is about 20-25 years. These solar panels have a bluish tint due to the light reflecting off the silicon fragments in the cell in a different way. Like monocrystals, these too can have different colors for back sheets and frames. 

Polycrystalline(Multi-Crystalline) solar panels

Thin-film panels: 

These panels are lightweight,  portable & flexible. They have low efficiency and their life span is around 15 - 20 years. Thin-film solar plates are made from cadmium telluride (CdTe). A CdTe layer is placed between transparent conductive layers that help capture sunlight. Another popular material used for thin-film solar panels is Copper Indium Gallium Selenide( CIGS). Thin solar panels are often slimmer than other panels. It comes in many different colors like blue, and black depending on what they are built. 

Both monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar panels have cells crafted from silicon wafers. These wafers are assembled into rows and columns to form a rectangle, covered with a pane of glass and framed together. But these both panels vary in the composition of the silicon itself.

In monocrystalline, solar cells are cut from a single, natural crystal of silicon whereas polycrystalline photovoltaic cells are composed of fragments of silicon crystals that might be melted collectively in a mold earlier than being reduced into wafers.

Bifacial solar panels: 

These capture sunlight from both the front & back of the panel. It helps in producing more electricity than other solar panels. They have a transparent back sheet so that sunlight can go through the panel.

Solar Panel System:

Solar Panel systems are mainly of 3 kinds:

ON- Grid System 

This system works in synchronization with the grid supply. A grid connection is a must. In the on-grid system, the solar panels convert the solar energy into DC current & the inverter transforms the DC current into AC current to supply power to your household or business. The excess electricity generated is fed back into the grid, which can then be buffered as required. 

 However on-grid systems do not work when power from mains is not available. So while it is cost-effective, it is finest used in locations where power cuts are minimum. It is also easy to install and cost-effective. It is ideal for locations where power has no cuts.

OFF - Grid System   

 A system is a stand-alone system. it can be used where there is no grid connection available.  It is highly usable where there are huge power cuts. This type of grid system works even when there is no main voltage. or when the solar panels are not producing electricity. Solar panels generate DC power and the inverter converts it to AC power to meet electrical needs. When the load on the home or business is less than the electricity generated, that electricity is stored in the battery. This stored power can be later used during power cuts or even when the panels are not able to generate power. It is ideal for remote areas where there are infrequent or more power cuts. It provides enough power that can be stored & used at night or when the power grid is down.

Hybrid System

It is a combination of on-grid & off-grid systems.

Solar Panel Working  / How do Solar Panels Work?

By using solar cells we can easily convert solar energy into electrical energy. Solar panels are made from photovoltaic cells. Photo means light and voltaic means power generation. Photovoltaic cells have 2 layers of semiconductors known as n-type and p-type where one layer is negatively charged while the other is positively charged. These layers are protected by 2 outer shields made from special glass. 

Solar panels work by taking the energy from the sun's rays and converting it into electricity. The semiconductor observes photons from the rays of the sun. The sun's rays contain photons. When these photons hit a solar panel, electrons in a solar panel will melt and an electrical current is created. This electricity then travels from a solar panel to an inverter. The inverter takes the electricity which is in DC and switches it into AC form. Once switched to alternating current, the power is ready for domestic use. 

Solar Panels Manufacturers :

Some of the companies selling solar panels are as below:




Loom solar









Solar Panel Installation 

Many companies offer solar panel installation services. For this follow the following steps:

 Place the solar panel in the sun 

 Prepare the wiring 

Connect the charge controller to the battery

In the charge controller, you will see distinct symbols one showing the battery symbol and the other showing the solar panel symbol. Do proper cabling with negative and positive sides. 

Then connect solar panels to the charge controller which is further attached to the battery. Then attach an inverter to the battery. From the inverter, you can use it for your home or office according to your needs.

Solar Panels Price in India   

Solar panels cost depends on the company manufacturer and the watt of the solar panel. The price of a Solar panel also depends on what type of solar panel you want to buy. Different companies have different prices. These can be used for home, office, etc. These can be installed on rooftops. Some of the examples telling price of different watts, different companies, and different kinds of solar panels are as follows:

Luminous 325 Watt on Rs 10,000

Bluebird 300 Watt on Rs 10,000

Luminous Mono Perc Solar panel 370 Watt on Rs 11,000- 12,000

Luminous 330 Watt on Rs 10, 000

In general, a 300-watt solar panel produces 240 volts which equal 1.25 Amps.